Piazza della Repubblica

I walk by or through the Piazza della Repubblica in Florence at least once a day, sometimes many more times.

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On a particularly fine day, such as today about noon when I took this picture, (I mean, look at that blue sky!  and this photo wasn’t photoshopped, I promise!) the inscription above the impressive arch on the south end of the piazza stands out and demands to be noticed.

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Translated, it tells us: The ancient center of the city / restored from age-old squalor / to new life.

The context for this bold announcement is that both the arch itself and the inscriptions speak to the 19th century re-ordering of this remarkable and very hallowed city space.

The square looks like this today:

 

But, originally, this key area of Florence was created by the Romans when the town was a mere Roman camp.  We think it then looked something like this:

Museo_Firenze_com'era,_plastico_Florentia_3

 

By the medieval period, the area looked something like this (Piazza del Mercato Vecchio, by Giovanni Stradono (Palazzo Vecchio, Sala di Gualdrada):

As you can see, the former Roman forum area was by now densely inhabited.  The city had grown and urban crowding led to tenements with ever rising floors, including the tower houses for which the city was once famous (case di torri in Italian).

What was once a Roman forum was now a commercial center of the city, serving as a  lively meeting place and home to the market.  Like other Italian towns, Florence developed certain city spaces intended for precise functions; the Piazza del Duomo, for example, was where religious affairs took place and another key area in the city, known then as the Piazza del Comune, (now known as the Piazza della Signoria), was for political and civic affairs.

We know what the area looked like thanks to contemporary prints, paintings, and drawings owned by the Museo di Firenze com’ era. Later painters, such as Telemaco Signorini, depicted with melancholy the old part of town that soon disappeared.

800px-Telemaco_Signorini,_Mercato_Vecchio_a_Firenze_(bozzetto)_1881-83_16x28,5_cm

Now, we fast forward to the 19th century.

It was decided that the square needed to be completely refigured, and that required the complete destruction of the city fabric, including warrens of zig-zagging old streets and buildings, both proletarian and aristocratic. Lost forever were some medieval towers, churches, the corporate seats of the city’s guilds, a few palaces of noble families, as well as craftsmen’s shops and residences.  On the positive side, the physical place and the idea of the ghetto were also demolished.
The politicians who envisioned what became the Piazza della Repubblica, sold their radical ideas as a part of the new city planning required when Florence became the capital of the new Italy from 1865 to 1871.  They determined that this unsanitary old section of the city was best completely removed. In fact, ironically, the particularly intense building activity in this Piazza took place between 1885 and 1895, well after the capital had been moved to Rome.
But it was in this period, known as the Risanamento in the 19th-century terminology (or,  the sventramento or ruining, by detractors), that this large part of the city center was demolished and rebuilt into the piazza as it exists today.

Unfortunately, a plentiful number of works of art and architectural fragments were sold through the antiquarian market.  Only some of them could be saved for the Museo nazionale di San Marco.  Other fragments allowed the founding of the likes of the Museo Bardini and the Museo Horne.  Vasari’s Loggia del Pesce, which had been a part of the market area for 400 years, was fortunately saved.  It was dismantled and reassembled in the Piazza dei Ciompi. It is still there today, out of context of course, but at least it exists.

In September of 1890, with many of the future palazzoni building sites still empty, the Piazza della Repubblica was formally inaugurated. The palazzi that rose in the new square followed the eclectic fashion of the time and were planned by well-known architects including Vincenzo Micheli, Luigi Buonamici, Giuseppe Boccini.

Following the transformation, the square became a kind of recreational center for the town; it was built up with the refined palaces, luxury hotels, department stores and elegant cafes, including the Caffe’ delle Giubbe Rosse where famous scholars and artists met and debated (argued).

So, now we return to the arch, which was meant to be a triumphal arch, designed by Micheli and inspired by the Roman monuments in Rome as well as by the most courtly Florentine Renaissance architecture.  The decorative elements of the arch veer far from Roman or Renaissance models.  The proclamation on the arch, with which I started this post, is said to have been taken from a literary source, possibly by Isidoro del Lungo.

 

 

One thought on “Piazza della Repubblica

  1. Pingback: Update on Piazza della Repubblica arch inscription | get back, lauretta!

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